The Fundamentals of Accounting


It comes into play for preparing the above three types of financial statements, namely income and expenditure statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. These statements are useful for ascertaining and reporting the financial information and standing of the entity periodically, usually a year. Such as suppliers, creditors, investors, owners, board of directors, and regulatory bodies like the Securities and Exchange Commission , etc. Accounting is the process where a business maintains a record of its financial transactions. Apart from aiding effective management of the business, accounting also helps the organisation report to regulators, investors and the public at large. The summary or account of a company’s financial transactions and track record over a period of time gives us an insight into the company’s performance and its likely course in the future. GAAP is a common set of generally accepted accounting principles, standards, and procedures.

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Depreciation tends to apply most often to items requiring insurance, such as cars, jewelry, and other material goods, or property that has estimated values, such as real estate. In general, depreciation tends to be most applicable when dealing with assets that have a limited, fixed lifespan. Usually, the first number in the statement and the final total number in a financial statement have the dollar sign ($). You do not need to continually place the dollar sign for every set of numbers. It is important to note that while the above are the types of business you could start, there is still another type of business that exists, and that is a government agency. These agencies are either elected and/or formed by elected individuals.

Bookkeeping and accounting software

The difference between these two statements is that the comprehensive statement provides information on how much cash reserves are available to cover future obligations and other commitments. It also includes information on its ability to raise funds through debt or equity markets and other sources. This term is used to account for the reduction of a value that occurs over time to assets on account of normal wear and tear.

Further, depreciation is provided for all the fundamental accounting in every accounting period to take care of their wear and tear. At Fundamentals of Accounting, our objective is to present complex accounting concepts in an easy and understandable manner. Accounting principles contribute to bridging the divide and attempting to achieve some sort of consistency in financial reporting. Under the conservatism concept, revenue and expenses are treated differently.

Accounting Categories

The United States uses an accounting system known as Generally Accepted Accounting Principles , which is established and overseen by the Financial Accounting Standards Board . On an international scale, the standards and rules, known as the International Financial Reporting Standards , are set by the International Accounting Standards Board . And the total of all debits should always equal the sum of all credits. If there is a difference between the two, that means journal entries will not balance. As the formula indicates, assets go on the left side of the equation and are debited. For example, if you receive cash, your accounting software would debit your cash account behind the scenes.


(Yes, you will be tested on this.) In order to understand this, we need to break down each part. For instance, GAAP allows companies to use either first in, first out or last in, first out as an inventory cost method.

Fundamental Accounting Concepts: Quiz

U.S. public companies must follow GAAP for their financial statements. This makes it easier for investors to analyze and extract useful information from the company’s financial statements, including trend data over a period of time. It also facilitates the comparison of financial information across different companies. Accounting principles also help mitigate accounting fraud by increasing transparency and allowing red flags to be identified.

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